Title IX of the1972 Education Amendments
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 [20 U.S.C. §§ 1681 - 1688]
Sec. 1681. Sex
(a) Prohibition againstdiscrimination; exceptions
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance, except that:
(1) Classes of educational institutions subject to prohibition
in regard to admissions to educational institutions, this section shall apply only to institutions of vocational education, professional education, and graduate higher education, and to public institutions of undergraduate higher education;
(2) Educational institutions commencing planned change in admissions
in regard to admissions to educational institutions, this section shall not apply
(A) for one year from June 23, 1972, nor for six years after June 23, 1972, in the case of an educational institution which has begun the process of changing from being an institution which admits only students of one sex to being an institution which admits students of both sexes, but only if it is carrying out a plan for such a change which is approved by the Secretary of Education or
(B) for seven years from the date an educational institution begins the process of changing from being an institution which admits only students of only one sex to being an institution which admits students of both sexes, but only if it is carrying out a plan for such a change which is approved by the Secretary of Education, whichever is the later;
(3) Educational institutions of religious organizations with contrary religious tenets
this section shall not apply to an educational institution which is controlled by a religious organization if the application of this subsection would not be consistent with the religious tenets of such organization;
(4) Educational institutions training individuals for military services or merchant marine
this section shall not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for the military services of the United States, or the merchant marine;
(5) Public educational institutions with traditional and continuing admissions policy
in regard to admissions this section shall not apply to any public institution of undergraduate higher education which is an institution that traditionally and continually from its establishment has had a policy of admitting only students of one sex;
(6) Social fraternities or sororities; voluntary youth service organizations
this section shall not apply to membership practices -
(A) of a social fraternity or social sorority which is exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of title 26, the active membership of which consists primarily of students in attendance at an institution of higher education, or
(B) of the Young Men's Christian Association, Young Women's Christian Association, Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, and voluntary youth service organizations which are so exempt, the membership of which has traditionally been limited to persons of one sex and principally to persons of less than nineteen years of age;
(7) Boy or Girl conferences
this section shall not apply to -
(A) any program or activity of the American Legion undertaken in connection with the organization or operation of any Boys State conference, Boys Nation conference, Girls State conference, or Girls Nation conference; or
(B) any program or activity of any secondary school or educational institution specifically for -
(i) the promotion of any Boys State conference, Boys Nation conference, Girls State conference, or Girls Nation conference; or
(ii) the selection of students to attend any such conference;
(8) Father-son or mother-daughter activities at educational institutions
this section shall not preclude father-son or mother-daughter activities at an educational institution, but if such activities are provided for students of one sex, opportunities for reasonably comparable activities shall be provided for students of the other sex; and
(9) Institution of higher education scholarship awards in "beauty" pageants
this section shall not apply with respect to any scholarship or other financial assistance awarded by an institution of higher education to any individual because such individual has received such award in any pageant in which the attainment of such award is based upon a combination of factors related to the personal appearance, poise, and talent of such individual and in which participation is limited to individuals of one sex only, so long as such pageant is in compliance with other nondiscrimination provisions of Federal law.
(b)Preferential or disparate treatment because of imbalance in participation or receipt ofFederal benefits; statistical evidence of imbalance
Nothing contained in subsection (a) of this section shall be interpreted to require any educational institution to grant preferential or disparate treatment to the members of one sex on account of an imbalance which may exist with respect to the total number or percentage of persons of that sex participating in or receiving the benefits of any federally supported program or activity, in comparison with the total number or percentage of persons of that sex in any community, State, section, or other area: *Provided*, That this subsection shall not be construed to prevent the consideration in any hearing or proceeding under this chapter of statistical evidence tending to show that such an imbalance exists with respect to the participation in, or receipt of the benefits of, any such program or activity by the members of one sex.
For purposes of this chapter an educational institution means any public or private preschool, elementary, or secondary school, or any institution of vocational, professional, or higher education, except that in the case of an educational institution composed of more than one school, college, or department which are administratively separate units, such term means each such school, college, or department.
Sec.1682. Federal administrative enforcement; report to Congressional committees
Each Federal department and agency which is empowered to extend Federal financialassistance to any education program or activity, by way of grant, loan, or contract otherthan a contract of insurance or guaranty, is authorized and directed to effectuate theprovisions of section 1681 of this title with respect to such program or activity byissuing rules, regulations, or orders of general applicability which shall be consistentwith achievement of the objectives of the statute authorizing the financial assistance inconnection with which the action is taken. No such rule, regulation, or order shall becomeeffective unless and until approved by the President. Compliance with any requirementadopted pursuant to this section may be effected (1) by the termination of or refusal togrant or to continue assistance under such program or activity to any recipient as to whomthere has been an express finding on the record, after opportunity for hearing, of afailure to comply with such requirement, but such termination or refusal shall be limitedto the particular political entity, or part thereof, or other recipient as to whom such afinding has been made, and shall be limited in its effect to the particular program, orpart thereof, in which such noncompliance has been so found, or (2) by any other meansauthorized by law: *Provided, however*, That no such action shall be taken until thedepartment or agency concerned has advised the appropriate person or persons of thefailure to comply with the requirement and has determined that compliance cannot besecured by voluntary means. In the case of any action terminating, or refusing to grant orcontinue, assistance because of failure to comply with a requirement imposed pursuant tothis section, the head of the Federal department or agency shall file with the committeesof the House and Senate having legislative jurisdiction over the program or activityinvolved a full written report of the circumstances and the grounds for such action. Nosuch action shall become effective until thirty days have elapsed after the filing of suchreport.
Sec. 1683. Judicial review
Any department or agency action taken pursuant to section 1682 of this title shall besubject to such judicial review as may otherwise be provided by law for similar actiontaken by such department or agency on other grounds. In the case of action, not otherwisesubject to judicial review, terminating or refusing to grant or to continue financialassistance upon a finding of failure to comply with any requirement imposed pursuant tosection 1682 of this title, any person aggrieved (including any State or politicalsubdivision thereof and any agency of either) may obtain judicial review of such action inaccordance with chapter 7 of title 5, and such action shall not be deemed committed tounreviewable agency discretion within the meaning of section 701 of that title.
Sec.1684. Blindness or visual impairment; prohibition against discrimination
No person in the United States shall, on the ground of blindness or severely impairedvision, be denied admission in any course of study by a recipient of Federal financialassistance for any education program or activity, but nothing herein shall be construed torequire any such institution to provide any special services to such person because of hisblindness or visual impairment.
Sec. 1685. Authorityunder other laws unaffected
Nothing in this chapter shall add to or detract from any existing authority withrespect to any program or activity under which Federal financial assistance is extended byway of a contract of insurance or guaranty.
Sec.1686. Interpretation with respect to living facilities
Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this chapter, nothing containedherein shall be construed to prohibit any educational institution receiving funds underthis Act, from maintaining separate living facilities for the different sexes.
Sec.1687. Interpretation of "program or activity"
For the purposes of this subchapter, the term "program or activity" and theterm "program" mean all of the operations of -
(A) a department, agency, special purpose district, or other instrumentality of a State or of a local government; or
(B) the entity of such State or local government that distributes such assistance and each such department or agency (and each other State or local government entity) to which the assistance is extended, in the case of assistance to a State or local government;
(A) a college, university, or other postsecondary institution, or a public system of higher education; or
(B) a local educational agency (as defined in section 198(a)(10) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965), system of vocational education, or other school system;
(A) an entire corporation, partnership, or other private organization, or an entire sole proprietorship -
(i) if assistance is extended to such corporation, partnership, private organization, or sole proprietorship as a whole; or
(ii) which is principally engaged in the business of providing education, health care, housing, social services, or parks and recreation; or
(B) the entire plant or other comparable, geographically separate facility to which Federal financial assistance is extended, in the case of any other corporation, partnership, private organization, or sole proprietorship; or
(4) any other entity which is established by two or more of the entities described in paragraph (1), (2), or (3);
any part of which is extended Federal financial assistance, except that such term doesnot include any operation of an entity which is controlled by a religious organization ifthe application of section 1681 of this title to such operation would not be consistentwith the religious tenets of such organization.
Sec. 1688. Neutralitywith respect to abortion
Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to require or prohibit any person, or publicor private entity, to provide or pay for any benefit or service, including the use offacilities, related to an abortion. Nothing in this section shall be construed to permit apenalty to be imposed on any person or individual because such person or individual isseeking or has received any benefit or service related to a legal abortion.