Gender Discrimination: U.S. Supreme Court Cases
Below is a list of U.S. Supreme Court cases involving gender discrimination and women's rights, including links to the full text of the U.S. Supreme Court decisions.
- Cleveland Bd. of Ed. V. LaFleur (1974)
Found that Ohio public school mandatory maternity leave rules for pregnant teachers violate constitutional guarantees of due process.
- Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson (1986)
Found that a claim of "hostile environment" sexual harassment is a form of sex discrimination that may be brought under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
- Johnson v. Transportation Agency (1987)
The Court decides that a county transportation agency appropriately took into account an employee's sex as one factor in determining whether she should be promoted.
- Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Serv., Inc. (1987)
Held that sex discrimination consisting of same-sex sexual harassment can form the basis for a valid claim under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
- Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools (1992)
The Court decided that an award of money damages is possible in a case brought to enforce Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, alleging sexual harassment and abuse by a teacher.
- Faragher v. City of Boca Raton (1998)
The Court decides that an employer may be liable for sexual discrimination caused by a supervisor, but liability depends on the reasonableness of the employer's conduct, as well as the reasonableness of the plaintiff victim's conduct.
- Davis v. Monroe County Board of Education (1999)
Held that a lawsuit under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 may be filed against a school board based on student-on-student sexual harassment, if the board is deliberately indifferent to sexual harassment, has actual knowledge of the harassment, and the harassment is so serious that it deprives the victims of access to the educational opportunities or benefits provided by the school.